Epidemiological Characteristics, Clinical Features, and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients in Northern Tehran, Iran; a Cross-Sectional Study


Introduction: Following the widespread pandemic of the novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19), this study has reported demographic and laboratory findings and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary educational hospital in 99 days in Iran. Objective: We aimed to investigate in-hospital death risk factors including underlying diseases and describe the signs, symptoms, and demographic features of COVID-19 patients. Methods: All confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted from 22 February to 30 May 2020 were extracted from hospital records. A follow-up telephone survey was conducted 30 days after discharge to acquire additional data such as survival status. Distribution of demographic and clinical characteristics was presented based on survival status during hospitalization. All analyses were performed using STATA version 14 with a level of significance below 5%. Results: Among 1083 recorded patients, the rate of survival and death was 89.2% (n=966) and 10.8% (n=117), respectively. 62% of the cases (n=671) were male. The mean recovery time was 1.90 (3.4) days in survived cases, which was significantly lower than that in deceased cases 4.5 (5.2) days, p<0.001). A significantly higher rate of death was observed among patients above the age of 60 years (24.8%, p<0.001), cases with hypertension (25.4%, P<0.001) and cases without cough (17 %, p=0.002) but with shortness of breath (16.5%, p=0.001). Conclusions: Our study emphasized the significant effect of different underlying conditions as mortality factors among COVID-19 patients, namely older age spectrum, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. By acknowledging the epidemiologic pattern and mortality factors, we have more tools to prioritize and make better judgments, and more lives can be saved.

1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. The N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727-33.
2. Vahidi E, Jalili M. Why COVID-19? Adv J Emerg Med. 2020;4(2s):e36.
3. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506.
4. Alimohamadi Y, Taghdir M, Sepandi M. Estimate of the Basic Reproduction Number for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):151-7.
5. Naderpour Z, Saeedi M. A Primer on COVID-19 for Clinicians: Clinical Manifestation and Natural Course. Adv J Emerg Med. 2020;4(2s):e62.
6. Worldometers. COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC 2020 [Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/].
7. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.
8. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(7):1-11.
9. Nikpouraghdam M, Jalali Farahani A, Alishiri G, Heydari S, Ebrahimnia M, Samadinia H, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in IRAN: A single center study. J Clin Virol. 2020;127:104378.
10. Ashraf MA, Shokouhi N, Shirali E, Davari-tanha F, Memar O, Kamalipour A, et al. COVID-19 in Iran, a comprehensive investigation from exposure to treatment outcomes. medRxiv. 2020; Preprint.
11. Greenland S, Pearce N. (2015). Statistical Foundations for Model-Based Adjustments. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:89-108.
12. Surveillances V. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19)—China, 2020. China CDC Weekly. 2020;2(8):113-22.
13. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Peña R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, et al. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020;34:101623.
14. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20.
15. Aggarwal G, Lippi G, Michael Henry B. Cerebrovascular disease is associated with an increased disease severity in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A pooled analysis of published literature. Int J Stroke. 2020;15(4):385-9.
16. García-Azorín D, Martínez-Pías E, Trigo J, Hernández-Pérez I, Valle-Peñacoba G, Talavera B, et al. Neurological Comorbidity Is a Predictor of Death in Covid-19 Disease: A Cohort Study on 576 Patients. Front Neurol. 2020;11:781.
17. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9.
18. Lan L, Xu D, Ye G, Xia C, Wang S, Li Y, et al. Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19. JAMA. 2020;323(15):1502-3.
19. Zhang JF, Yan K, Ye HH, Lin J, Zheng JJ, Cai T. SARS-CoV-2 turned positive in a discharged patient with COVID-19 arouses concern regarding the present standard for discharge. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;97:212-4.
IssueVol 5 No 1 (2021): Winter (February) QRcode
SectionOriginal article
COVID-19 Coronavirus Epidemiology Iran Patient Outcome Assessment

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Jalili Khoshnood R, Ommi D, Zali A, Ashrafi F, Vahidi M, Azhide A, Shirini D, Sanadgol G, Jalilian Khave L, Nohesara S, Nematollahi S, Arab-Ahmadi M, Haji Miragha M, Hassanzadeh T, Taherian R, Karami M, Keshmiri Y, Fatemi A. Epidemiological Characteristics, Clinical Features, and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients in Northern Tehran, Iran; a Cross-Sectional Study. Front Emerg Med. 5(1):e11.


Download data is not yet available.