Ethics in Research
Ethics in Research
Ethical requirements and responsibilities
- For authors:
- Upon submission, by checking off predesigned statements, author(s) should certify that neither the submitted manuscript nor another one with substantially similar content under their authorship has been published in any language or being considered for publication elsewhere.
- Author(s) should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article.
- All authors must have significantly contributed to the research and fulfill the authorship criteria.
- All authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.
- Authors must state that all data in the article are real and authentic.
- In the situation that an author is added or removed from the list of authors, written acceptance, signed by author(s), must be submitted to the editorial office.
- Sources of financial support for the project should be acknowledged.
- A statement should be included in the title page or at the end of article just before references indicating any financial support the authors had received.
- If the study involves human beings, the author(s) must include a statement that the study was approved by the local ethical committee and that written informed consent was obtained from the study participants. For those who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. Also, the compliance of maintenance and care of experimental animals with National Institutes of Health guidelines for the human use of laboratory animals should be declared in text.
- All relevant permissions to use unpublished observations of others must be obtained by the manuscript author(s) and stated in the text. The names of the original author(s) should be declared. Also, permission must be obtained to reproduce or adapt any figures or tables that have been published previously and declared in the legend/footnote.
- Author(s) should certify that their research study is in agreement with the regulations of their institution(s) and generally accepted guidelines governing such work; contains no violation of any existing copyright or other third party right; and is free of any obscene, indecent, libelous, or otherwise unlawful material.
- If a manuscript contains any previous published image or text, it is the responsibility of the author to obtain authorization from copyright holders. The author(s) is required to obtain and submit the written original permission letters for all copyrighted material used in their manuscripts.
- For reviewers:
- Reviewers are required to keep manuscripts and their information confidential.
- They must not use knowledge of the manuscript before its publication for their personal interests.
- The reviewers' comments should be constructive, honest, and polite so can help to improve the quality of the article.
- Reviewers should declare their conflicts of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders and decline review if a conflict exists. Knowing the author(s) must not affect their comments and decision.
- Reviewers should point out relevant published work which is not yet cited.
- For editors:
- The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision regarding all the content and has complete responsibility and authority to reject/accept an article. Decisions may be made by issues unrelated to the quality of a manuscript, including ethical consideration. The editor can reject any article at any time before publication, including after acceptance if concerns arise about the integrity of the study and ethics as well.
- Reviewers' and authors' identities are kept confidential.
- The existence of a submitted manuscript is not revealed to anyone other than the reviewers and editorial staff.
- Editors should have no conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject/accept.
- When errors are found in a manuscript, the editors promote publication of corrections or retractions.
Publication ethics and malpractice statements
Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine conforms to the international regulations against scientific misconduct including fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, etc. The Journal is committed to Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and any cases of suspected misconduct will be assessed during the peer-review and publication process based on COPE guidelines.
Definition: When an author tries to present the work of someone else as his or her own, it is called plagiarism. In addition, when an author uses a considerable portion of his or her own previously published work in a new one without properly citing the reference, it is called a duplicate publication sometimes also referred to as self-plagiarism. This may range from publishing the same article in another journal to 'salami-slicing', which is data segmentation, to adding little new data to the previous article.
Policy: The editorial team/reviewers of “Frontiers in Emergency Medicine” will check the submitted manuscripts for plagiarism twice (once after submission and once before publication) using available plagiarism detection software such as iThenticate. If suspected plagiarism is found in an article either before (by reviewers or editorial team) or after (by readers) publication, Emergency will act according to COPE’s code of conduct and flowcharts.
Based on the ICJME recommendations "all those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged".
Any change in authorship (i.e. order, addition, and deletion of authors) after initial submission must be approved by all authors via written confirmation, in line with COPE guidelines. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors confirm they agree with the proposed changes. If there is disagreement amongst the authors concerning authorship and a satisfactory agreement cannot be reached, the authors must contact their institution(s) for a resolution. It is not the journal editor’s responsibility to resolve authorship disputes. A change in authorship after publication of an article can only be amended via publication of an Erratum.